Composition of electronic components
Thanks to modern technology, electronic circuit building process has been completely automated, especially for building ICs and PCBs. The number and arrangement of components in a circuit may vary depending on its complexity. However, it is built using a small number of standard components.
The following components are used to construct electronic circuits.
Component 1: Capacitor
Capacitors are widely used to build different types of electronic circuits. A capacitor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that can store energy in an electric field electrostatically. In simple terms, it works as a small rechargeable battery that stores electricity. However, unlike a battery, it can charge and discharge in the split of a second.
Component 2: Resistor
A resistor is a passive two-terminal electrical device that resists the flow of current. It is probably the simplest element in an electronic circuit. It is also one of the most common components as resistance is an inherent element of nearly all electronic circuits. They are usually color-coded.
Component 3: Diode
A diode is a two-terminal device that allows electric current to flow in only one direction. Thus, it is the electronic equivalent of a check valve or a one-way street. It is commonly used to convert an Alternating Current (AC) into a Direct Current (DC). It is made either of a semiconductor material (semiconductor diode) or vacuum tube (vacuum tube diode). Today, however, most diodes are made from semiconductor material, particularly silicon.
Component 4: Transistor
One of the most crucial components of an electronic circuit, transistors have revolutionized the field of electronics. These tiny semiconductor devices with three terminals have been around for more than five decades now. They are often used as amplifiers and switching devices. You can think of them as relays without any moving parts because they can turn something ‘on’ or ‘off’ without any movement.
Component 5: Inductor
An inductor, also known as a reactor, is a passive component of a circuit having two terminals. This device stores energy in its magnetic field, returning it to the circuit whenever required. It was discovered that when two inductors are placed side by side without touching, the magnetic field created by the first inductor affects the second inductor. It was a crucial breakthrough that led to the invention of the first transformers.
Component 6: Relay
A relay is an electromagnetic switch that can open and close circuits electromechanically or electronically. You need a relatively small current to operate a relay. Usually, they are used to regulate low currents in a control circuit. However, you can also use relays to control high electric currents. A relay is the electrical equivalent of a lever. You can switch it on with a small current to turn on (or leverage) another circuit using large current. Relays are either electromechanical relays or solid-state relays.
Component 7. Quartz Crystal
Quartz crystals have several applications in the electronics industry. However, they are mostly used as resonators in electronic circuits. Quartz is a naturally occurring form of silicon. However, it is now produced synthetically to meet the growing demand. It exhibits the piezoelectric effect. If you apply physical pressure on one side, the resulting vibrations generate an AC voltage across the crystal. Quartz crystal resonators are available in many sizes according to the required applications.